Tiny bubbles in our body to fight cancer better than chemo, Researchers find
In this case, researchers used EVs, to deliver the enzyme-producing genes that could activate a prodrug combination therapy of ganciclovir and CB1954 in breast cancer cells.
Minicircle DNA and regular plasmid - two different gene vectors that act as additional delivery mechanisms for DNA - were loaded into the vesicles to see which was better at helping transport treatment.
This is known as a gene-directed enzyme, prodrug therapy. They found that the minicircle DNA was 14 times more effective at delivery and even more successful at killing cancerous tumours. "Conventional chemotherapy isn't able to differentiate between tumours and normal tissue, so it attacks it all," Kanada said.
With EVs, treatment can be targeted and because of their compatibility with the human body, this type of delivery could minimize the risk of unwanted immune responses that can come with other gene therapies. "If EVs prove to be effective in humans, it would be an ideal platform for gene delivery and it could be used in humans sooner than we expect," Kanada added.